Professional nurses in hospitals, clinics and medical centers used the following steps to verify types of urine specimens and method of collections.
TYPES OF URINE SPECIMEN AND METHOD OF COLLECTION 24 HOUR URINE SPECIMEN
A containere.g. Winchester bottle, labeled with client’s name, ward, hospital number etc and set aside.
Explain to client the importance of collecting all urine for a 24 hour period. Instruct client not to pass urine and faces in the same bedpan.
The collection is started at a specific time e.g. 8a.m. of one till 8a.m. the following day, by having the client empty his/her bladder. This urine is discarded.
From then till 8am the next day all urine is passed is collected and put into the Winchester bottle. The client should void at the end of the 24 hour period i.e. 8am. This specimen is included in the study.
All voiding is usually kept in one common receptacle or depending on type of the examination used; the urine for each voiding may be kept in a separated marked container and time urination started.
The total amount passed may be sent to the laboratory or the content of the Winchester bottle stirred, and a specimen taken. The specimen must be correctly labeled and sent to the laboratory form.
In hot weather the specimen should be refrigerated, and sometimes a preservative can be used e.g. toulol is added to retard decomposition.
COLLECTION OF MIDSTREAM URINE SPECIMEN BY A NURSE
Usually requested for microbiological examination
Give the client a bedpan or a urinal if client is a male.
Tell client that a midstream specimen is required. This means the client voids a little into bedpan which is discarded. Te specimen is then collected during the midstream into a universal bottle (i.e. sterile container) up to a level specified.
Instruct the client to pass the last urine in the bladder into the bedpan or urinal, this is discarded.
The first voided urine helps to flush away organisms that may be near the urethral opening or meatus.
Ensure the specimen bottle is correctly labeled and with appropriate specimen.
NOTE: If client has difficulty passing urine into the sterile container, use a sterile bedpan to collect midstream and then transfer into specimen bottle.
COLLECTING CATHETER SPECIMEN OF URINE
– Set for catheterization if catheter is not positioned
– All equipment must be sterilized because an aseptic technique must be employed throughout
– Sterile gloves are worn by the nurse for this procedure
– The specimen is acquired by passing a sterile catheter into the urinary bladder.
– Position and receive urine using a sterile specimen glass or universal container which is sterile.
– Send the specimen immediately with appropriate request form to the laboratory.